Monday, May 23, 2016
History Documentary: The American Revolutionary War (1775–1783) How Britain Lost The American Colonies (Full Documentary). The Historian Channel: American Independece War, Documentary
History Documentary: The American Revolutionary War (1775–1783) How Britain Lost The American Colonies (Full Documentary). The Historian Channel's American Independece War, Documentary.
The American Revolutionary War (1775–1783), also known as the American War of Independence and the Revolutionary War in the United States, was the armed conflict between Great Britain and thirteen of its North American colonies, which had declared themselves the independent United States of America. Early fighting took place primarily on the North American continent. France, eager for revenge after its defeat in the Seven Years' War, signed an alliance with the new nation in 1778 that proved decisive in the ultimate victory. The conflict gradually expanded into a world war with Britain combating France, Spain, and the Netherlands. Fighting also broke out in India between the British East India Company and the French allied Kingdom of Mysore.
The American Revolutionary War had its origins in the resistance of many Americans to taxes, which they claimed were unconstitutional, imposed by the British parliament. Patriot protests escalated into boycotts, and on December 16, 1773, the destruction of a shipment of tea at the Boston Tea Party. The British government retaliated by closing the port of Boston and taking away self-government. The Patriots responded by setting up a shadow government that took control of the province outside of Boston. Twelve other colonies supported Massachusetts, formed a Continental Congress to coordinate their resistance, and set up committees and conventions that effectively seized power. In April 1775 the battles of Lexington and Concord, in Middlesex County, near Boston, began open armed conflict between the Kingdom of Great Britain and thirteen of its colonies. The Continental Congress appointed General George Washington to take charge of militia units besieging British forces in Boston, forcing them to evacuate the city in March 1776. Congress supervised the war, giving Washington command of the new Continental Army; he also coordinated state militia units.
On July 2, 1776, the Continental Congress formally voted for independence, and issued its Declaration on July 4. However, it was not until August 2, 1776 that the Declaration of independence was taken into place and first signed by Delaware. Meanwhile, the British were mustering forces to suppress the revolt. Sir William Howe outmaneuvered and defeated Washington, capturing New York City and New Jersey. Washington was able to capture a Hessian detachment at Trenton and drive the British out of most of New Jersey. In 1777 Howe's army launched a campaign against the national capital at Philadelphia, failing to aid Burgoyne's separate invasion force from Canada. Burgoyne's army was trapped, and surrendered after the Battles of Saratoga in October 1777.
This American victory encouraged France to enter the war in 1778. Spain joined the war in 1779, as an ally of France under the Pacte de Famille.
In 1778, having failed in the northern states, the British shifted strategy toward the south, bringing Georgia and South Carolina under control in 1779 and 1780. However, the resulting surge of Loyalist support was far weaker than expected. In 1781, British forces moved through Virginia and settled at Yorktown, but their escape was blocked by a French naval victory in September. Led by Count Rochambeau and Washington, a combined Franco-American army launched a siege at Yorktown and captured more than 8,000 British troops in October.
The defeat at Yorktown finally turned the British Parliament against the war, and in early 1782 they voted to end offensive operations in North America. The war against France and Spain continued, with the British defeating the Great Siege of Gibraltar, and inflicting several defeats on the French in 1782. In 1783, the Treaty of Paris ended the war and recognized the sovereignty of the United States over the territory bounded roughly by what is now Canada to the north, Florida to the south, and the Mississippi River to the west. France gained its revenge and little else except a heavy national debt, while Spain acquired Great Britain's Florida colonies.