|The Roman conquest of Britain.|
Tuesday, July 28, 2015
The Roman Invasion of Britain, the Roman conquest of Britain, History Documentary. Caesar's invasions of Britain and Carausian Revolt.
The Roman conquest of Britain was a gradual process, beginning effectively in AD 43 under Emperor Claudius, whose general Aulus Plautius served as first governor of Roman Britain (Latin: Britannia). Great Britain had already frequently been the target of invasions, planned and actual, by forces of the Roman Republic and Roman Empire. In common with other regions on the edge of the empire, Britain had enjoyed diplomatic and trading links with the Romans in the century since Julius Caesar's expeditions in 55 and 54 BC, and Roman economic and cultural influence was a significant part of the British late pre-Roman Iron Age, especially in the south.
Between 55 BC and the 40s AD, the status quo of tribute, hostages, and client states without direct military occupation, begun by Caesar's invasions of Britain, largely remained intact. Augustus prepared invasions in 34 BC, 27 BC and 25 BC. The first and third were called off due to revolts elsewhere in the empire, the second because the Britons seemed ready to come to terms. According to Augustus's Res Gestae, two British kings, Dubnovellaunus and Tincomarus, fled to Rome as supplicants during his reign, and Strabo's Geography, written during this period, says that Britain paid more in customs and duties than could be raised by taxation if the island were conquered.
By the 40s AD, the political situation within Britain was apparently in ferment. The Catuvellauni had displaced the Trinovantes as the most powerful kingdom in south-eastern Britain, taking over the former Trinovantian capital of Camulodunum (Colchester), and were pressing their neighbours the Atrebates, ruled by the descendants of Julius Caesar's former ally Commius.
Caligula planned a campaign against the Britons in 40, but its execution was bizarre: according to Suetonius' The Twelve Caesars, he drew up his troops in battle formation facing the English Channel and ordered them to attack the standing water. Afterwards, he had the troops gather seashells, referring to them as "plunder from the ocean due to the Capitol and the Palace".
Friday, July 24, 2015
India under British rule, History Documentary: British Occupation Of India - Full Documentary, The British Raj
|Flag of British India|
Imperial political structure comprising
(a) British India (a quasi-federation of presidencies and provinces directly governed by the
British Crown through the Viceroy and Governor-General of India);
(b) Princely States, governed by Indian rulers, under the
suzerainty of the British Crown exercised through the
Viceroy and Governor-General of India
India under British rule, History Documentary: British Occupation Of India - Full Documentary,
The British Raj (rāj, meaning "rule" in Hindi)
was the rule of the United Kingdom in the Indian subcontinent between 1858 and
1947. The term can also refer to the period of dominion. The region
under British control—commonly called India—included areas directly administered
by the United Kingdom as well as the princely states ruled by individual rulers
under the paramountcy of the British Crown. The region was less commonly also
called British India or the Indian Empire. The Empire of India was
officially created by the British Prime Minister Benjamin Disraeli for Queen
Victoria in 1876.
Saturday, July 18, 2015
History Documentary: the land of Count Dracula, the historical Transylvanian-born Voivode Vlad III Dracula of Wallachia. Romania - Wild Carpathian Mountains of Transylvania
History Documentary: the land of Count Dracula, the historical Transylvanian-born Voivode Vlad III Dracula of Wallachia. Romania - Wild Carpathian Mountains of Transylvania. The documentary "Wild Carpathia" explores the magnificent Carpathian foothills.
|Portrait of Vlad III Dracula, the Impaler.|
Already in 1958, Cecil Kirtly proposed that Count Dracula shared his personal past with the historical Transylvanian-born Voivode Vlad III Dracula of Wallachia, also known as Vlad the Impaler or Vlad Țepeș. Following the publication of In Search of Dracula by Radu Florescu and Raymond McNally in 1972, this supposed connection attracted much popular attention.
Historically, the name "Dracula" is the given name of Vlad Ṭepeș' family, a name derived from a secret fraternal order of knights called the Order of the Dragon, founded by Sigismund of Luxembourg (king of Hungary and Bohemia, and Holy Roman Emperor) to uphold Christianity and defend the Empire against the Ottoman Turks. Vlad II Dracul, father of Vlad III, was admitted to the order around 1431 because of his bravery in fighting the Turks and was dubbed Dracul (Dragon) thus his son became Dracula (son of the dragon). From 1431 onward, Vlad II wore the emblem of the order and later, as ruler of Wallachia, his coinage bore the dragon symbol.
Stoker came across the name Dracula in his reading on Romanian history, and chose this to replace the name (Count Wampyr) that he had originally intended to use for his villain. However, some Dracula scholars, led by Elizabeth Miller, have questioned the depth of this connection as early as 1998. They argue that Stoker in fact knew little of the historic Vlad III except for the name "Dracula". While having a conversation with Jonathan Harker in Chapter 3, Dracula refers to his own background, and these speeches show elements which Stoker directly copied from Wilkinson's book. Stoker mentions the Voivode of the Dracula race who fought against the Turks after the defeat of Cossova, and was later betrayed by his brother, historical facts which unequivocally point to Vlad III, described as "Voïvode Dracula" by Wilkinson:
Who was it but one of my own race who as Voivode crossed the Danube and beat the Turk on his own ground? This was a Dracula indeed! Woe was it that his own unworthy brother, when he had fallen, sold his people to the Turk and brought the shame of slavery on them! Was it not this Dracula, indeed, who inspired that other of his race who in a later age again and again brought his forces over the great river into Turkey-land; who, when he was beaten back, came again, and again, though he had to come alone from the bloody field where his troops were being slaughtered, since he knew that he alone could ultimately triumph! (Chapter 3, pp 19)
Monday, July 13, 2015
The Dacians, History Documentary. The History of Dacians, Romania's ancestors. Ancient Dacia, History Documentary
|Marble statue of a Dacian warrior surmounting the Arch of Constantine in Rome.|
The Dacians (/ˈdeɪʃənz/; Latin: Daci, Ancient Greek: Δάκοι, Δάοι, Δάκαι) were an Indo-European people, part of or related to the Thracians. Dacians were the ancient inhabitants of Dacia, located in the area in and around the Carpathian Mountains and west of the Black Sea. This area includes the present-day countries of Romania and Moldova, as well as parts of Ukraine, Eastern Serbia, Northern Bulgaria, Slovakia, Hungary and Southern Poland.The Dacians spoke the Dacian language, believed to have been closely related to Thracian, but were somewhat culturally influenced by the neighbouring Scythians and by the Celtic invaders of the 4th century BC.
Tuesday, July 7, 2015
|Flag of Vendée|
In Vendée, the revolt is organized into the so-called Catholic and Royal Army but at the end of 1793 it is put down.
Republic trembled and is now going to avenge with no mercy. Under the Committee of Public Safety rules, slaughters will multiply. Dizains of thousands of prisoners are tortured, rapped, shot or drowned... The army hunt down Vendeans, including women, children and elders, to eliminate them metodically.
In 1986, young historian Reynald Secher publishes a thesis where he describes the slaughters from the Republican Army in Vendée and names them as genocide. This is the end of a 200 years taboo.
In this documentary broadcasted on France 3 on march 7th 2012, Franck Ferrand comes back on this silenced part from French national history.
La Vendée-Vengé, Le génocide franco-français - Reynald Secher
La désinformation autour des guerres de Vendée et du génocide vendéen - Reynald Secher
Le livre noir de la Révolution Française - Renaud Escande et collectif d'historiens
It is also remembered as the place where the peasants revolted against the Revolutionary government in 1793, which opened with a massacre at Machecoul in March. They resented the harsh conditions imposed on the Roman Catholic Church by the provisions of the Civil Constitution of the Clergy act (1790) and broke into open revolt after the Revolutionary government's imposition of military conscription. A guerrilla war, known as the Revolt in the Vendée, led at the outset by peasants who were chosen in each locale, cost more than 240,000 lives before it ended in 1796 (190,000 Vendeans who were republicans or royalists and 50,000 non-Vendean republican soldiers; according to the Jacques Hussenet and Centre Vendéen de Recherche Historique's book "Détruisez la Vendée"). The Revolt in the Vendée must not be confused with the revolt of the Chouans, which took place at the same time in Maine and Brittany. In 1804, Napoleon I chose La Roche-sur-Yon to be the capital of the departement. At the time, most of La Roche had been eradicated in the Vendée Revolt (1793–96); the renamed Napoléonville was laid out and a fresh population of soldiers and civil servants was brought in. Napoléonville had a square-grid street network and was designed to accommodate 15,000 people.
In 1815, when Napoleon escaped exile on Elba for his Hundred Days, the Vendée refused to recognise him and stayed loyal to King Louis XVIII. General Lamarque led 10,000 men into the Vendée to pacify the region. A failed rebellion in the Vendée in 1832 in support of Marie-Caroline de Bourbon-Sicile, duchess de Berry, the former King Charles X's widowed daughter-in-law, was an unsuccessful attempt to restore the Legitimist Bourbon dynasty during the reign of the Orléanist monarch, King Louis Philippe of the French (1830–1848).