Saturday, February 27, 2016

History Documentary: The Real Wild West - Geronimo, History Documentary: History of the Far West Conquer. Geronimo, History Documentary: The Apache-American conflict

Geronimo (Mescalero-Chiricahua: Goyaałé [kòjàːɬɛ́] "the one who yawns"; June 16, 1829 – February 17, 1909) was a prominent leader from the Bedonkohe band of the Chiricahua Apache tribe. From 1850 to 1886 Geronimo joined with members of three other Chiricahua Apache bands—the Chihenne, the Chokonen and the Nednhi—to carry out numerous raids and commit widespread depredations in the northern Mexico states of Chihuahua and Sonora, and in the southwestern American territories of New Mexico and Arizona. Geronimo's raids and related combat actions were a part of the prolonged period of the Apache-American conflict, that started with American settlement in Apache lands following the end of the war with Mexico in 1848. The Apache-American conflict was itself a direct outgrowth of the much older Apache-Mexican conflict which had been ongoing in the same general area since the beginning of Mexican/Spanish settlement in the 1600's.
Credits: Wikipedia
Edward S. Curtis, Portrait of Geronimo, 1905

Sunday, February 21, 2016

History Documentary: The Real Wild West History Documentary: General George Custer, History of Civil War: General Custer (George Armstrong Custer), Full Documentary

George Armstrong Custer (December 5, 1839 – June 25, 1876) was a United States Army officer and cavalry commander in the American Civil War and the American Indian Wars. Raised in Michigan and Ohio, Custer was admitted to West Point in 1857, where he graduated last in his class in 1861. With the outbreak of the Civil War, Custer was called to serve with the Union Army.

Brevet Major General George Armstrong Custer in field uniform, 1865.

BornDecember 5, 1839
New Rumley, Ohio
DiedJune 25, 1876 (aged 36)
Little Bighorn, Montana
Place of burialinitially on the battlefield;
later reinterred in West Point Cemetery

Years of service1861–1876
Rank Lieutenant Colonel

Custer developed a strong reputation during the Civil War. He participated in the first major engagement, the First Battle of Bull Run on July 21, 1861 near Washington, D.C. His association with several important officers helped his career, as did his success as a highly effective cavalry commander. During the war, Custer was eventually promoted to captain of the U.S. Army (May 1864), and to the temporary ranks of (brevet) major general of the U.S. Army (March 1865) and major general of the U.S. Volunteers (April 1865) at age 25. At the conclusion of the Appomattox Campaign, in which he and his troops played a decisive role, Custer was present at General Robert E. Lee's surrender to General Ulysses S. Grant on April 9, 1865.

After the Civil War, Custer remained a major general in the U.S. Volunteers until they were mustered out by February 1866. He reverted to his permanent rank of captain and was appointed a lieutenant colonel in the U.S. 7th Cavalry Regiment, in July 1866. He was dispatched to the west in 1867 to fight in the American Indian Wars. On June 25, 1876, while leading the 7th at the Battle of the Little Bighorn in Montana against a coalition of Native American tribes, he and all of his battalion were killed including two of his brothers. The battle is popularly known in American history as "Custer's Last Stand." Custer and his regiment were defeated so decisively at the Little Bighorn that it has overshadowed all of his prior achievements.
Credits: Wikipedia

Saturday, February 13, 2016

History Documentary: The Real Wild West - Crazy Horse, Full Documentary, History of the Far West Conquer: Crazy Horse

History  Documentary: The Real Wild West -  Crazy Horse, Full Documentary, History of the Far West Conquer: Crazy Horse

The Wild West collection features documentaries about some of the most controversial and mythic figures in American western history.

From Butch Cassidy and the Sundance Kid to Billy the Kid, from Custers Last Stand to Geronimo's fight against the U.S. government, learn the real stories behind some of America's greatest western tales.

Crazy Horse (Lakota: Tȟašúŋke Witkó in Standard Lakota Orthography,[2] IPA:tχaʃʊ̃kɛ witkɔ), literally "His-Horse-Is-Crazy";[3] c. 1840 – September 5, 1877) was a Native American war leader of the Oglala Lakota. He took up arms against the United States Federal government to fight against encroachments on the territories and way of life of the Lakota people, including leading a war party to victory at the Battle of the Little Bighorn in June 1876.

Four months after surrendering to U.S. troops under General Crook in May 1877, Crazy Horse was fatally wounded by a military guard, using his bayonet, while allegedly[4][5] resisting imprisonment at Camp Robinson in present-day Nebraska. He ranks among the most notable and iconic of Native American tribal members and was honored by the U.S. Postal Service in 1982 with a 13¢ Great Americans series postage stamp.
Credits: Wikipedia

A 1934 sketch of Crazy Horse made by a Mormon missionary after interviewing Crazy Horse's sister, who claimed the depiction was accurate.

Oglala Lakota leader
Personal details
Born Cha-O-Ha ("In the Wilderness" or "Among the Trees")
c. 1840
Died September 5, 1877 (aged 36-37)
Fort Robinson, Nebraska
Resting place Undisclosed location
  • Black Buffalo Woman
  • Black Shawl
  • Nellie Larrabee (Laravie)

Crazy Horse

He fought to the end to protect the lands that had been his people's since time immemorial. His death marked the end of an era. Crazy Horse cut his teeth fighting with the Olgala chief Red Cloud against United States troops in Wyoming. He earned a place in legend and signed his own death warrant for his role in Custer's last stand. Travel back to the waning days of the frontier for a revealing portrait of one of the great Indian leaders. Leading historians and elders of his Sioux tribe offer their take on his life and legend, while period accounts, art and artifacts show the fervor that marked his pursuit and capture by U.S. forces after the Little Big Horn. A stirring profile of a noble warrior who gave everything he had in a desperate and futile struggle to preserve the freedom and dignity of his people.

Monday, February 8, 2016

History Documentary: Phoenicia and the Phoenicians, Full Documentary: Who Really Were The Phoenicians. History Documentary: Phoenicia, the ancient civilization

Who Really Were The Phoenicians?  Documentary on Evidence of the Lost Civilization of the Phoenicians.

Phoenicia (UK /fᵻˈnɪʃə/ or US /fəˈniːʃə/; from the Greek: Φοινίκη, Phoiníkē; Arabic: فينيقية‎, Fīnīqīyah) was an ancient Semitic thalassocratic civilization situated on the western, coastal part of the Fertile Crescent and centered on the coastline of modern Lebanon, Israel and Syria. All major Phoenician cities were on the coastline of the Mediterranean, some colonies reaching the Western Mediterranean. It was an enterprising maritime trading culture that spread across the Mediterranean from 1500 BC to 300 BC. The Phoenicians used the galley, a man-powered sailing vessel, and are credited with the invention of the bireme. By their innovations in shipbuilding and seafaring, the Phoenicians were enabled to sail as far west as present-day Morocco and Spain carrying huge cargoes of goods for trade. They were famed in Classical Greece and Rome as 'traders in purple', referring to their monopoly on the precious purple dye of the murex snail, used, among other things, for royal clothing, and for the spread of their alphabets, from which almost all modern phonetic alphabets are derived.

Although Egyptian seafaring expeditions had already been made to Byblos to bring back Lebanon cedars as early as the 3rd millennium BC, continuous contact only occurred in the Egyptian New Empire period. In the Amarna tablets of the 14th century BC, people from the region called themselves Kenaani or Kinaani. Much later, in the 6th century BC, Hecataeus of Miletus writes that Phoenicia was formerly called χνα (Latinized: khna), a name Philo of Byblos later adopted into his mythology as his eponym for the Phoenicians: "Khna who was afterwards called Phoinix".

Phoenicia is really a Classical Greek term used to refer to the region of the major Canaanite port towns, and does not correspond exactly to a cultural identity that would have been recognised by the Phoenicians themselves. The term in Greek means 'land of purple', a reference to the valuable murex-shell dye they exported.[8] It is uncertain to what extent the Phoenicians viewed themselves as a single ethnicity and nationality. Their civilization was organized in city-states, similar to ancient Greece. However, in terms of archaeology, language, life style and religion, there is little to set the Phoenicians apart as markedly different from other Semitic cultures of Canaan. As Canaanites, they were unique in their remarkable seafaring achievements.

Each city-state was a politically independent unit. They could come into conflict and one city might be dominated by another city-state, although they would collaborate in leagues or alliances. Though ancient boundaries of such city-centered cultures fluctuated, the city of Tyre in South Lebanon seems to have been the southernmost. Sarepta (modern day Sarafand) between Sidon and Tyre in South Lebanon is the most thoroughly excavated city of the Phoenician homeland.

The Phoenicians were the first state-level society to make extensive use of alphabets. The Phoenician alphabet is generally held to be the ancestor of almost all modern alphabets. They spoke Phoenician, a part of the Canaanite subgroup of the Northwest Semitic language family. Other members of the family are Hebrew, Ammonite, Moabite and Edomite. However, due to the very slight differences in language, and the insufficient records of the time, whether Phoenician formed a separate and united dialect, or was merely a superficially defined part of a broader language continuum, is unclear. Through their maritime trade, the Phoenicians spread the use of the alphabet to North Africa and Europe, where it was adopted by the Greeks, who later transmitted it to the Romans. 

The Phoenicians: Map of Phoenicia and its Mediterranean trade routes

  • Byblos, Mount Lebanon (1200 BC–1000 BC)
  • Tyre, South Lebanon (1000 BC–333 BC)
  • Carthage (333 BC–149 BC)
Languages Phoenician, Punic
Religion Canaanite religion
Government Kingship (City-states)
Well-known kings of Phoenician cities
 •  c. 1000 BC Ahiram
 •  969 BC – 936 BC Hiram I
 •  820 BC – 774 BC Pygmalion of Tyre
Historical era Classical antiquity
 •  Established 1500 BC
 •  Tyre in South Lebanon, under the reign of Hiram I, becomes the dominant city-state 969 BC
 •  Pygmalion founds Carthage (legendary) 814 BC
 •  Cyrus the Great conquers Phoenicia 539 BC
 •  3200 BC est. 200,000 

 Credits: Wikipedia