|Extent of Etruscan civilization and the twelve Etruscan League cities.|
Friday, April 29, 2016
History Documentary: The Etruscans, Lost Ancient Civilzation- Full documentary: The Etruscan Civilization
The Etruscan civilization (/ᵻˈtrʌskən/) is the modern name given to a civilization of ancient Italy in the area corresponding roughly to Tuscany, western Umbria, and northern Lazio. The ancient Romans called its creators the Tusci or Etrusci. Their Roman name is the origin of the terms Tuscany, which refers to their heartland, and Etruria, which can refer to their wider region.
In Attic Greek, the Etruscans were known as Tyrrhenians (Τυρρηνοὶ, Tyrrhēnoi), earlier Tyrsenoi, from which the Romans derived the names Tyrrhēni, Tyrrhēnia (Etruria), and Mare Tyrrhēnum (Tyrrhenian Sea),prompting some to associate them with the Teresh (Sea Peoples). The word may also be related to the Hittite Taruisa (gr. Tursha).The Etruscans called themselves Rasenna, which was syncopated to Rasna or Raśna.
As distinguished by its unique language, this civilization endured from before the time of the earliest Etruscan inscriptions (c. 700 BC) until its assimilation into the Roman Republic in the late 4th century BC.
At its maximum extent, during the foundational period of Rome and the Roman Kingdom, Etruscan civilization flourished in three confederacies of cities: of Etruria, of the Po Valley with the eastern Alps, and of Latium and Campania.
Culture that is identifiably Etruscan developed in Italy after about 800 BC approximately over the range of the preceding Iron Age Villanovan culture. The latter gave way in the 7th century to a culture that was influenced by ancient Greece, Magna Graecia, and Phoenicia.
After 500 BC, the political destiny of Italy passed out of Etruscan hands.
The latest mitochondrial DNA study (2013) shows that Etruscans appear to fall very close to a Neolithic population from Central Europe and to other Tuscan populations.